Mechanics of Materials LaboratoryTension Test of Low Carbon Steel1A. Introduction and ObjectiveThe objective of this experiment is to perform a tension test of a low carbon steel todetermine the mechanical properties and to become familiar with the equipment used in atension test.B. Theory1.0 Uniaxial TensionA state of uniaxial or 1-dimensional stress is produced in a tensile specimen.The engineering stress in the axial direction is calculated byaxial=F,Aowhere F is the axial load and Ao is the original cross-sectional area. Although thestate of stress becomes more complicated when the specimen greatly reduces incross-sectional area (necking of the specimen), engineering stress iscommonly used because it is very easy to determine.The initial cross-sectional area is determined by measuring the cross-sectiondimensions before the start of the test, and the force is often determined by aninstrumented load cell for mechanical screw-driven or servo-hydraulic testingmachines.For testing machines with a load cell, the load cell is made from a bar of materialwith a known modulus of elasticity and instrumented to give a voltage reading inproportion to the axial strain that is applied to the bar in the load cell. Unless theload cell capacity is exceeded, the voltage will also be in proportion to theapplied load on the specimen.2A state of uniaxial stress corresponds to a state of multiaxial strain for materialswith a non-zero Po ...
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