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Unsustainable Salmon Farming System

Executive Summary

Around the world, aquaculture has become an increasingly more significant industry in efforts to support seafood production. Seafood consumption around the globe, specifically salmon consumption in the United States has increased over the years partially due to updated dietary guidelines which call for every diet to include at least eight ounces of seafood per person per week. It has also been found that salmon have higher levels of Omega-3 fatty acids, which are incredibly crucial for the health and wellbeing of people.

As aquaculture grows, specifically the use of salmon farms so does the controversy that surrounds it. As more people turn to seafood consumption as a significant part of their diet, there is more substantial pressure to mass-produce, and wild-caught salmon cannot support the demand. This increased demand has led to riskier production methods, as companies struggle to keep up, and salmon farming especially comes with many risks. Farmed salmon are often kept in non-native waters, in poorly built pens, in massive quantities. Because of this, farmed salmon are often treated with some chemicals to prevent the spread of bacteria and lice, which could contaminate the entire supply. These chemicals often seep into the environment around the pens, harming the native ecosystems and marine populations, causing population death and reducing biodiversity. Additionally, farmed salmon often escape from the poorly built pens and overtake the native salmon populations, creating competition and spreading different diseases.

Industrial systems currently put in place to mass produce salmon pose a significant risk to the health and safety of multiple ecosystems, both in and out of water. Unsafe and unsustainable farming practices must be re-evaluated so that demand can be met without causing future irreversible harm.

Unsustainable System Description

Aquaculture has become a vital element in supporting localized, national, and global seafood production. Aquaculture, most commonly associated with fish farming, has been praised for creating jobs, fostering the growth of protected species and ecosystems, and creating resilient coastlines (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2020). Aquaculture can be defined as rearing and breeding marine or aquatic animals in environments that are controlled by the particular farmers. The aquaculture of salmon species includes the farming and harvesting of salmon under controlled conditions. (Naylor, 2005) Farmed Salmon is salmon that has been grown from eggs in hatcheries. Those eggs are then placed in marine pin nets in the ocean to be developed to a marketable size for human consumption or use in other products. (Naylor, 2005) This practice has increased over the years as worldwide consumption demand has also increased. The increase in farming of salmon has led to the rise in the ability for seafood, and the popularity of salmon, to reach such a mass market. Thus, this aquaculture has increased over the years as worldwide consumption demand has also increased. Continued claims by human dietary needs put stress on marine fisheries and ocean resources. Aquaculture has quickly become one of the most likely avenues for increasing salmon production in the future. (Naylor, 2005) While the continued innovations in aquaculture and the farming of salmon are explicitly continually praised for its ability to provide a healthy protein source for a large portion of the world’s population, there are some significant setbacks as well as risks to the wild salmon population. However, current salmon farming practices pose a significant threat to native and non-native species of salmonids in North America. Worldwide production of aquaculture has significantly increased over the years at an estimated rate 8 per cent a year while in North America it has risen by an estimated rate of 3.5 per cent per year signifying the rapid growth of aquaculture in North America. In northern America there is a firm institutional endorsement of aquaculture production and the state government has committed to fostering of aquaculture industrial expansion. For instance, in North America, the commerce department has recently implemented a policy that will enhance the development of sustainable and the most competitive aquaculture industries.

Salmon aquaculture has significantly contributed to aquaculture production in North America because salmon is farmed in North West region of the Atlantic Ocean. Farmed salmon prices in northern America have increased with the increase in demand due to the rise in population. Farmed salmon have become highly valuable and have played a significant role in boosting the economic growth in North America. Salmon aquaculture production has also significantly contributed to increased marine output in general. Salmon farming also affects the community in different ways creating drastic changes in our local ecosystems. Unfortunately, farming systems of salmon have shown to be environmentally and economically unsustainable. However, the production has not yet been stopped because of the high demand for salmon, which keeps on increasing rapidly. Changes need to be implemented in the salmon farming systems in North America to ensure that farming practices used are sustainable without significant adverse impacts on the economy or environment. Aquaculture can be emphasized to help solve problems in the production industry, such as economic stagnation and overfishing. However, it also brings along other such issues as detrimental effects to the marine and salmon farms environment. These impacts include high levels of mercury in fish, decreased biodiversity and introgression. These problems are generally experienced at the local level though they are capable of creating long term damage in the ecosystem that is affected. Regions dominated by salmon farms have become unlivable due to the poor air conditions and reduced water quality caused by salmon farming. Increased salmon production in the northwest has caused more harm to the economy than good. According to the previous study, the debate has been ongoing on whether salmon farming is beneficial as compared to wild salmon fishing and whether the negative impacts involved are worth the agriculture.  There is also a lot of concern to the health of the consumer, through salmon louse, reduction of Omega-3’s in farmed salmon, competition for ecosystem resources, and industrial solutions such as chemical treatments for said salmon louse.

Natural Systems Influences

A vast majority of the farmed salmon is not native to the areas that they are cultivated in, such as Atlantic salmon, which are primarily planted in the Pacific Northwest, separated by only a net. This is especially problematic since one significant risk associated with salmon farming is the likelihood of farmed fish escaping into wild populations (Macklin, 2018). Understanding the pervasiveness of escaped farmed salmon in the wild is a necessary step in assessing the risk occurring from interactions between farmed and wild salmon. This understanding is especially critical along the eastern seaboard of North America, where Atlantic salmon fisheries are positioned near wild Atlantic salmon Rivers and where many wild salmon populations are dwindling (Morris, 2008). In the research text titled “ Prevalence and recurrence of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in eastern North American rivers,” Morris et al., reviewed the evidence on the extent of escaped farmed salmon in eastern North American rivers (Morris, 2008). The Morris et al. investigation found that farmed salmon who had escaped from their pins have been located in 54 of 62, or roughly 87% of the rivers studied, within a 300 km radius of the aquaculture industry’s fishing sites since 1984 (Morris, 2008). This research included eleven rivers that contained wild salmonid populations that are considered endangered. The average representation of farmed salmon among adults entering the waterways from the sea was 9.2% with a scale ranging from zero to one hundred per cent (Morris, 2008). The data collected by previous research and examined by Morris et al. showed trends of farmed salmon balance varying considerably over time (Morris, 2008). This would suggest that farmed salmon escapes are sporadic. However, the independent data garnered from Morris et al. research led them to conclude that escaped farmed salmon are more than abundantly ordinary in eastern North American rivers, so much so that they create a potentially dangerous risk to the continued existence of wild salmon populations (Morris, 2008). This was found to be especially true in the rivers that are contiguous to functioning aquaculture farming sites (Morris, 2008).

Breached nets in salmon farms bring about introgression, thus decreasing the population size of local wild salmons. The escape salmon species can affect the quantity and quality of wild salmons bought from the market by consumers. Salmon marine farms are susceptible to attracting dangerous predatory animals for example sharks, due to high numbers of salmon prey which they can capture easily in the salmon marine farms thus creating more constraints to the economy instead of providing solutions to the preexisting problems. Increased salmon production also leads to a relative decrease in the market price of salmons thus leading to a decrease in the income of the local fishermen who are left with no option but to increase the quantity of fish during fishing to cover for the rent they have lost. Introgression has become a significant concern in the salmon farms, which has been enhanced by the difficulties in maintaining the nets for salmon farming operations. Tears in the nets are quite common due to predatory animals trying to reach the salmon and storms which occur more often in the sea. Salmon fish that has escaped from the nets intermingle with other wild fish leading to an increase in competition, introgression, and disease and parasite transfer. During introgression, genes are transferred from one species to another. Thus genetics of farmed salmons tamper with the wild species genetics. This tampering causes genetically modified variations which may lead to gene shrinking of the recipient wild salmon because farmed salmons contain low gene variations. The wild salmon species may die, causing the extinction of the wild salmon species due to the shrinking of genes. This outcome is detrimental and leads to a population decrease of wild salmon species in the locality. Aquaculture facilities on land may be environmentally friendly as compared to which is the most commonly practised in the north of America. It is easier for farmers to rear salmon in the sea because of the available water and waste management is not required, but this poses a severe threat to the environment and the economy of northern America.

The increased risk of wild salmon population extinction also happens due to invasive farmed salmon intermingling with the wild native populations. As more farmed salmon escape into wild populations, the intermingling of the species increases the amount of competition for food and habitat resources. As competition increases, there is a more significant strain on the native population, often causing those native populations to die out. In many areas, wild salmon already struggle to survive and thrive due to many factors, but the additional and near-uncontrollable threat of farmed salmon puts entire ecosystems at risk. Included in the risk that farming salmon poses to the ecosystems surrounding the farm, is the unavoidable deaths of predatory animals. As salmon are farmed in highly concentrated areas, it is only natural that many predators are drawn to the pens. This puts the marine predators at risk of death from entanglement in the nets, or being killed by the farmers to protect the stock, hurting the ecosystem as a whole (Macklin, 2018). Natural system influences have significantly contributed to the unsustainability of the salmon farming systems in North America, which have shown to be more problematic than beneficial to the local community members.

Human Behaviors Influences

Within the rapidly growing aquaculture industry, salmon is known to be one of the world’s most sought-after fish. Due to the continuous increase in demand, the volume of farmed Atlantic salmon has increased by almost one thousand per cent between 1990 and 2015 (FAO: United Nations, 2020). According to statistics given by the United Nations, 75 per cent of all the salmon consumed by humans is farm-raised (FAO: United Nations, 2020). Meanwhile, wild-caught salmon has become more of a luxury due to it being more difficult to find in-store and, generally speaking, cost-prohibitive. Over the past two and a half decades, the consumption of seafood products, including fish and shellfish, in the U.S. has risen rapidly. Individual seafood consumption in the U.S. was around 14.6 pounds per person in 1997 and rose to a record-setting high of 16.5 pounds in 2004 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2019). Since 2004, the U.S. annual consumption of fish and shellfish has gradually decreased to 14.9 pounds per person in 2018 but remains steadily at this level (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2019). The increase and stabilization in consumption of seafood around the world, and specifically in the United States, can be linked in part to the United States’ dietary guidelines which now recommend consumption of at least 8 ounces of seafood per person per week (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). This recommendation is due in part to the realization of the importance of omega-3 fatty acids in human diets.

Salmon has one of the highest levels of LC omega-3s amongst commonly procured fish, thus making it highly desirable (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). However, recent studies have found that farmed salmon is containing less and less omega-3 fatty acids, and what they do produce. There is a wide variety of Salmons. Some examples are pink salmon, chinook, sockeye salmon, and trout. All of these members of the salmon family can be either farmed Atlantic salmon or wild-caught salmon (Carter, 2019). All varieties of salmon provide important nutrients such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, protein, as well as the previously mentioned omega-3 fatty acids (Carter, 2019). Omega-3 fatty acids are also known as “good fats” and are widely regarded for their ability to potentially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in adults (IFFO, 2020). As dietary needs change and Americans look towards living healthier lifestyles, the consumption of fish and omega-3s has skyrocketed. (Carter, 2019) Higher consumption rates continue to put strain on the aquaculture industry as both wild salmon fishermen and salmonoid farmers attempt to keep up with the demand, forcing the salmon industry to search for new ways to yield higher production rates (Douglas, 2019). In recent years, this has led to the reduction in the amount of fish oil being added to the feed mixture of farmed salmon (IFFO, 2020).  Omega-3 feed reduction is what has caused the aforementioned loss in levels of omega-3 fatty acids that the consumer eats. The reduction in the omega-3 in the feed is due to a supply and demand issue. Due to an increased demand for salmon feed and a limited supply of fish oil, the aquaculture industry cannot procure enough omega-3 for their feeds. The result is that consumers may need to eat more farmed salmon to maintain their recommended intake levels, as per the USDA guidelines.

Human behaviours have significantly contributed to the unsustainable farming system of salmon in North America. Most practices that revolve around the ocean or sea are human activities. Fishers are overfishing day in day out and if this issue is not resolved many fish species will soon be extinct an example being Atlantic cod. Salmon could also become extinct if measures are not undertaken to limit fishing of wild salmon species. Overfishing by fishers to satisfy the rapidly increasing demand for salmons due to their recent popularity has severely impacted on the sustainable salmon fishing system as anglers focus on the quantity of fish they get not the quality.  Salmon farms in the open-ocean have eased the pressure of demand for wild salmon by providing an alternative which has been effective but has not solved any economic or environmental issues making it still unsustainable due to the detrimental impacts it has. Farmed salmon is not as healthy as the wild salmon due to a decrease in some nutritional elements, and it contains greater levels of fat that are saturated as compared to the wild species. Most researchers argue that the decrease in the nutritional value of farmed salmon is because they are fed specific formulated pellets mostly made from fish matter and vegetables and contain chemical additives to promote growth and enhance digestion. On the other hand, wild salmon species obtain their food from invertebrates and krill, making them healthier. For the people of North America to continue eating salmon, they will have to find a sustainable system for salmon farming and avoid any activities that would compromise the sustainability of the system implemented. Measures are also supposed to be implemented to deal with the detrimental impacts of salmon farming.

Humans have greatly polluted lakes and rivers which the salmon should use during reproduction, thus leading to no population increase of the salmons. Salmon habitats continue to be damaged as people dispose of wastes in the sea or ocean, causing an imbalance in their natural habitats. Dam constructions are one of the human activities that have contributed to the unsustainable farming system of salmons. Irrigation has also played its contributory role where runoff water from the irrigation ends up in the ocean carrying with it all sort of harmful chemical and impurities that may have negative impacts on the salmon in the sea, for example, the irrigations schemes in California have contributed to the extinction of the salmon species by about 20percent (Hilborn 2006). Humans should be educated on the impacts there activities have on salmon farming in terms of environmental sustainability and be urged to implement measures that promote the sustainable salmon farming system, especially in North America.

Industrial Systems Dynamic Influences

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) $688 million of the $5.4 billion in annual gross sales of fish and shellfish in the United States in 2017 was from salmon (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2018). As salmon consumption gains popularity, its sales become a larger part of the greater economy. Wild populations alone cannot keep up with the demand, so farms are necessary to maintain this, leading to unsustainable farming practices. Part of these unsustainable practices includes pollution and contamination due to excessive use of chemical treatments including antibiotics, antifoul ants, or pesticides which have consequences for both marine wildlife and human health. According to the World Wildlife Organization (WWO), the chemicals used in many salmon farms often spread and can then disturb wildlife throughout the ocean, and especially on the ocean floor (World Wildlife Organization, 2020). Additionally, excess nutrients from salmon farms waste often causes disruptions in marine life, leading to reduced biodiversity and harming ecosystem food supply chains (World Wildlife Organization, 2020). The WWO also presents concerns about the impact that the chemicals used for salmon farming have on the health of consumers, as consumption of salmon has become increasingly more common (World Wildlife Organization, 2020).

Major industries in the United States such as manufacturing and mining have always dumped their waste material into water bodies which find their way to the ocean and still continue with this unsustainable and harmful practice till to date. Salmon farms near the sea also produce runoff which is expensive and difficult to clean when compared the cost of production of the salmon fish. This makes the salmon farming system unsustainable because for the industry to continue producing more salmons it has to ignore the massive pollution it’s causing and the negative impacts the pollution has on our environment and the salmon’s ecosystem. Rules and measures have not been put into place to monitor how the salmon farms manage their wastes as most of the farms dispose them into the ocean destroying the habitat for the salmons thus contributing to their extinction. According to research by world resource institute every salmon obtained from aquaculture production excretes several pounds of wastes that is phosphorous and nitrogenous wastes which when in excess cause algal bloom due to their high concentrations. Farmers could apply measures of fish waste collection and even use them as fertilizers in the agricultural field to improve crop yields and value. United States is among the leading consumer nations for fish meaning that it also has the highest amount of phosphorous and nitrogen wastes that if not disposed properly contribute to environmental unsustainability. The buildups of these wastes enhance severe eutrophication because of too much nitrogen in the environment. Fish industries on land have implemented strategies to disinfect and filter their wastes to minimize the kind of impact they could have on the environment in the surrounding region which has proved to be very effective (Macklin 2018). They monitor and disinfect materials being poured into the ocean to ensure there are no harmful chemicals or any other pollutants that would pose a threat to the salmons existence.

The aquaculture industry has become a significant supplier of fish, and in particular, salmon, within the worldwide market system. Between 1992 and 2002, the worldwide production of farmed fish and shellfish almost tripled in weight and nearly doubled in value (FAO: United Nations, 2020). According to recent estimates, nearly 40% of all fish directly consumed by humans worldwide come from a farm; that is to say, they are not wild-caught fish (Naylor, 2005). The expansion of some sectors of aquaculture has been particularly dramatic, with the worldwide production of farmed salmon quadrupling in processed weight from 1992 to 2002. Farmed salmon production now exceeds the catching of wild salmon by about 70%, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO: United Nations, 2020). It is important to note that nearly ninety percent of farmed salmon products are Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon is a salmonoid species that is nearly depleted in the wild (FAO: United Nations, 2020). Farmers can effectively implement Acquaponics and integrate it with aquaculture so as to develop a salmon farming system that is sustainable. Nitrogen and phosphorous waste from salmon marine farms can be used to fertilize crops in the hydroponics aspect. Acquaponics can therefore be described as hydroponics and aquaculture combined thus promoting nutrients recycling and avoiding environmental pollution specifically pollution in the ocean. This would lead to a decrease in waste production hence promoting sustainable salmon farming. Industrial systems dynamics have a great influence on the sustainability of salmon farming system and due to ignorance it has impacted negatively on salmon farming causing the unsustainability. Marine salmon production firms ignore the fact that they should manage their wastes effectively in order to preserve the existence of the salmon species.

Policy Recommendations and Implementation Strategies

As they exist now, the North American aquaculture systems are unsustainable and endanger many species. New policies thoughtfully put in place could prevent harm to wild populations and reduce the environmental harm that is often associated with salmon farming. Some preexisting guidelines, such as those from the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch program, could provide an outline for future policy. The Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch program outlines the requirements for a program to be considered sustainable aquaculture, including requirements such as each program must provide timely production practice information, must not allow for waste discharge over a certain level as determined by the surrounding environment’s needs, must limit the use of chemicals to , must to avoid natural predator death, and must source feed sustainably. Other policies should address the creation of pens with lower risk of farmed salmon escape and set environmental standards to reduce health risks to humans and marine life. These policies could be implemented through the use of a federal permitting system which requires yearly renewal to ensure that any salmon farm, privately or publicly owned, is regulated and adheres to the National Environmental Policy Act. Ocean wise programs has ceased to approve salmon farm as sustainable because they do not conform to certain standards which shows that salmon farms are operating recklessly and rules should be implemented to monitor how the salmon farms function. Assessments of marine salmon firms should be done from time to time to ensure the firms observe the standard set by the government to promote sustainable system for salmon farming.

Onshore facilities should be encouraged because they reduce run off of wastes by increased waste management techniques (Douglas 2019). Tanks with closed circuits should be used during waste management to filter solid wastes from liquid with an aim of reducing fragmentation of wastes and improving water quality thus decreasing the disease possibilities in salmon. Onshore policy system ensures that by the time a particular firm dumps materials into the sea they are free from all impurities due to water circulation. Using closed-circuit system salmon farmers can filter pathogens out for example viruses which may bring diseases to the salmon species which could be costly for salmon fish that are caged in the sea. Pathogens filtration can be done using radiations from UV light and the dissolved ozone which is capable of killing many pathogens. To ensure that marine firms use this techniques waste tax should be imposed on them to reduce the environmental impacts of wastes and to make farmers embrace onshore aquaculture. Policies that restrict waste run off amounts should be implemented and enforced by government agencies in charge of environmental conservation to facilitate operations based in the ocean to transition and base their operations onshore. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association’s (NOAA) policy suggests that all policies implemented and decisions made should aim towards protecting and preserving wild fish and the environment where they exist. However according to previous studies this policy has been neglected thus the need for more policies to be implemented and certain organizations to be started to ensure that policies implemented are followed to the later.

The state government is also obligated with ensuring that sustainable aquaculture prevails by helping firms to transition their activities to facilities on land and even give out rewards to companies that implement this strategy. Government should be willing to offer grants to companies so that they can be able to finance their movement back to land. The government can also provide support financially to aquacultures companies that are beginning their operations to ensure they implement the closed circuit policy system which can be very expensive and frustrating to implement without financial support. Government could also establish several programs that would educate and encourage farmers in aquaculture on the importance of moving to the land and why it is necessary for them to achieve sustainable salmon farming. If the farmers understand this strategy they would use effective methods of fish production with minimum are no environmental effects and find a better market without necessarily worrying about the financial requirement of implementing the new system. The government should also implement strategies that will monitor fishing to prevent overfishing which has led to extinction of some species.

Salmon farming can be sustainable only if farmers are ready to work together and implement new strategies that promote salmon farming sustainability and avoiding actions that would compromise the same. It is recommendable that salmon farmers should effectively implement Acquaponics and integrate it with aquaculture so as to develop a salmon farming system that is sustainable. Nitrogen and phosphorous waste from salmon marine farms can be used to fertilize crops in the hydroponics aspect. Acquaponics can therefore be described as hydroponics and aquaculture combined thus promoting nutrients recycling and avoiding environmental pollution specifically pollution in the ocean. This would lead to a decrease in waste production hence promoting sustainable salmon farming. Another recommendation is that fish industries should filter and disinfect materials being poured into the ocean to ensure there are no harmful chemicals or any other pollutants that would pose a threat to the salmons existence.  Humans behaviors are major factors that have contributed to unsustainable salmon farming thus  humans should be educated on the impacts there activities have on salmon farming it terms of environmental sustainability and be urged to implement measures that promote sustainable salmon farming system especially in North America. Fish industries on land should implement new ways to disinfect and filter their wastes to minimize severe environmental and economic impact that could occur in the surrounding region which has proved to be very effective. Monitoring and disinfecting materials being poured into the ocean should be a priority for salmon production firms to ensure there are no harmful chemicals or any other pollutants that would pose a threat to the salmon’s existence or destroy their habitat.



There are many factors that have led to the unsustainable practices currently used for farming salmon. Wild salmon species get pulled out of the seas each day while few are being born which are not enough to replace the ones that get fished out giving out more reasons as to why salmon farming is not yet sustainable. This action has significantly devastated thus salmon wild species by threatening their existence leading to a decrease in population of the salmon. Human activities have also contributed this devastation by knowingly destroying their natural habitats and implementing farming techniques that enhance competitiveness. Our desire to produce more salmon fish has led to the alteration on the genetic makeup of the wild salmon causing shrinking of genes which would eventually lead to the death of the recipient wild salmon. Salmon production firms have also contributed to unsustainable salmon farming by having a problematic attitude that focuses on capturing the highest amount of fish without considering the consequences of overfishing. Finally the community at large is also responsible for not undertaking actions to prevent environmental destruction brought about by open ocean salmon firms and overfishing (Carter 2019). Salmon farming can be sustainable only if farmers are ready to work together and implement new strategies that promote salmon farming sustainability and avoiding actions that would compromise the same.

Dietary guidelines for consumption have led to a large increase in the demand for seafood, the most sought-after being salmon. As the demand has increased, fishing industries have tried to accommodate, but with an ever-shrinking wild population, the only way to do so is through the use of farms. These farms are not well regulated, and as such often engage in the use of harmful practices to cut costs and meet demands. These practices endanger both human and marine life, as chemicals and disease spread from the farmed populations to surrounding ecosystems. Wild populations of predators are often put in danger from the nets and farmers, and wild populations of other salmon species are often overrun by escaped farmed salmon. If this system is to continue growing, there needs to be complete policy reform to ensure the use of more sustainable practices. Such policies include regulatory permitting to ensure that all salmon farms meet environmental safety standards, and the use of preexisting guidelines from organizations such as the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch program to create sustainable aquaculture programs. Enacting these policies would reduce the risk that the ever-growing salmon farming industry poses to the health and safety of ecosystems in and out of water.

The demand for salmon fish keeps on increasing globally so as the consumption rate yet people still continue to pollute the ocean and overfish. For humans to continue eating and enjoying salmon meals as part of their diets they should focus on establishing effective methods for salmon production mainly for consumption. As farming practices of salmon fish suffice they bring about severe effects to the environmental surrounding for example eutrophication of sediments, introgression, and sea lice. To make matters worse people are also fishing on the type of fish that is used to manufacture food for the salmons. This clearly shows that terrestrial systems of aquaculture are the only hope for the survival of salmon species to avoid extinction in the future. Aquaculture organizations on land have proved to be environmentally cautious and the best way to produce salmon without any economical or environmental unsustainability as compared to the open ocean facilities (Gunnar 2006). Waste reduction and management in the salmon production farms will ensure favorable conditions prevail for farmers to grow tastier and healthy salmon fish.


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Douglas, L. (2019, September 18). The Battle Over Fish Farming In The Open Ocean Heats Up, As EPA Permit Looms. Retrieved from National Public Radio:

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Hilborn, R. (2006). Salmon-Farming Impacts on Wild Salmon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America(pp. Vol 103, No 42, p. 15277). Seattle: National Academy of Sciences.

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Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as , , and . We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when . All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services.It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.


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